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[toggle title=” Since the dawn of civilization “]

One of the most interesting problems in the European archaeology is when did man first set foot on the continent? According to the data we have today, people’s ancestral continent is Africa. The prehistoric humans appeared about 3.4 million years ago, and about 2 million years ago they began to settle in other continents.

According to the popular scientific theories there are two possible “routes” for the settlement of Eurasia – through Gibraltar on the Iberian Peninsula or through the Dardanelles on the Balkan Peninsula. Until recently, the scientist inclined to think it was the route through Spain because in the Leon slope and in the Orsay deposits artefacts of 1.2 million years have been discovered.

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[toggle title=” HOMO SAPIENS in the Belogradchik region “]  

Recent excavations of  archaeologists in a cave near Belogradchik, called the KozarnikaCave however, changed this perception. Evidences were found of human habitation of least 1.6 million years ago. The study of the cave began in 1996 under the leadership of the Institute of Archaeology at the BulgarianAcademy of Science and the Institute of Geology and Prehistory of the Quaternary in Bordeaux, France headed by Nikolay Sirakov and Jean-Luc Guadelli.

The things discovered up to this time reveal a Palaeolithic culture. They differ significantly from the findings in the BachoKiroCave and the TemnataDupkaCave (the DarkHoleCave), but they show similarities with the artefacts discovered in Western Europe, but a few thousand years older. The cave was inhabited during the middle Palaeolithic era, but the real sensation was found in the lower layers of history of an age of 1.6 million years. There, the archaeologists discovered a tooth of a Homo, a probable Homo Erectus.

Another find from the early Palaeolithic era evoked a great interest among the scientific community. These were a few bones dating from 1.2-1.4 million years ago, on which cuts have been made. Archaeologists believe they were made deliberately and were not an incidental result of mechanical activity. This hypothesis opposes the prevailing view that Homo Sapiens developed symbolic thinking about 50,000 years ago.

The carved pieces of bone found in the KozarnikaCave lead scientists to conclude that the first inhabitants of the cave have been able to express abstract concepts through sculptures. The cuts on the bones were attributed to the Stone Age and allow the assumption that the first people were counting the days.

The life in the Belogradchik’s region during the following periods gets more easily traceable. Samples from the Bronze Age have been found near the villages Krachimir, Rabisha and Salash, and from the Iron Age near Dolni Lom, Dimovo and Krachimir again. The presence of artefacts from the early and late antiquity in the lands near the villages Rabisha, Salash and Granichak and in the very town of Belogradchik evidences permanent human presence in the area.

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[toggle title=” The courageous Thracians “]

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus has mentioned the Triballi as one of the 22 existing Thracian tribes. Scientists now believe that under this name a conglomeration of three groups of homogeneous population should be understood, located west and east of the TimokRiver and north of the DanubeRiver. The location and general tribal area of this population during the IV century BC reached to Moravia on the west, to the Carpathian Mountains on the north, and on the south over the Balkan Mountain, reaching the mountains of Vitosha, Plana and Sredna Gora near Ihtiman. The Triballis bordered with the Illyrians on the southwest, with the Mysians on the east, the Agriyanis on the southwest and with the Odrysians on the southeast.

The means for livelihood of the Triballi was determined by the natural geographic features of the area. Agriculture was developed in the river valleys, in the hilly areas – animal husbandry, horticulture and viticulture, and in mountain areas mining and metal casting was successfully developed. Metal products and jewellery were processed; the tribes were also occupied with pottery, ceramics and trade. The main market places of the Triballi at that time were Serdica and Niš.

The sources that have survived the time and have reached to us describe that the Triballi had the reputation of a strong and rebellious tribe which did not tolerate any foreign authority and opposed even the most powerful rulers. Thus in 424 BC they managed to stop the Odrysian expansion to the regions of the present cities of Sofia and Niš and even the Odrysian Tsar Sitalk lost his life in the battle.
In 376 BC the Triballi continued their expansion along the MestaRiver, reaching down to the Aegean Sea. There they seized and ravaged the old and rich Greek colony Abdera (near today’s Kavala), as result of which the colony’s political and economic importance was lost.

In 342 and 339 BC they succeeded to repulse the attacks of Philip II of Macedonia, who wanted to include their land within the occupied Balkan territories. Several years later (in 335), his son Alexander the Great took a new crusade against the Triballi. His goal was to secure his northern border and strengthen his army with the well trained Thracian warriors before the war with the Persians. The outcome of this crusade is unknown. It is assumed that Triballians have recognized the rule of the conqueror, but have retained their internal autonomy. After the collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great the lands of the Balkan Peninsula were inherited by his commander Lysimachus. There is no evidence that Triballians have obeyed and have been able to preserve their autonomy, but in 15 AD the Romans finally conquered the lands of today’s northern Bulgaria and formed the province of Moesia.

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[toggle title=” The Roman era “]

It was the Romans who erected a Fortress in Belogradchik for the first time. This was in I century AD, as evidenced by the coins discovered bearing the image of Emperor Vespasian. This stronghold is older than those in Bononia (Vidin) and Montana. It is believed that the Belogradchik Fortress was essential for the region and served as a barrier of the St. Nicholas passage through which the road from Ratsiaria (in Latin Colonia Ulpia Ratiaria) to the valley of Timok River passed.

The new settlement grew in the vicinity of the fortress as result of the need to serve the garrison. This probably happened in the III century AD, as evidenced by the part of the Roman fort preserved till today. The settlement outlived the Huns invasions and survived during the period of V-VI century, but was later on assimilated by the migrations of Slavic tribes.

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[toggle title=” The First Bulgarian Empire “]

The establishment of Bulgarian state, the Danubian Bulgaria, in 681 changed substantially the situation of the lands near Belogradchik. The settlement and the fortress continued to develop. At the beginning of IX century, they were a border supporting point of the Bulgarian state, which was supposed to keep under control the Slavic tribes across the Balkan Mountains and the TimokRiver.

During the First Bulgarian Empire there were several important fortresses in the region of Belogradchik. The largest one of them was the Uzbeg Kale (stronghold), erected on top of a huge rock, which made it inaccessible, but with a wide view range. The stronghold was situated on the old Roman road, which continued to play an important role. Access to the fortress was made through rope bridges, thrown across from the neighbouring rocks.

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[toggle title=” Second Bulgarian Empire “]

The Belogradchik fortress remained the major stronghold in the region during the period of the Second Bulgarian Empire. At that time the foundations of the present town were laid, which is evidenced by the silver coins of Ivan Alexander (1331-1371) and his son Michael Asen.
The feudal division of the lands was typical at that time. In 1207 four Cuman nobles raised a rebellion and separated Vidin and its region. Tsar Boril managed to quell the rebellion with the help of Hungarian knights, but at this time the Magyar interests in the region also commenced.

After the Tatar invasion of Russian principalities (1240 ), many Russian aristocrats sought refuge in Bulgaria. Among them was Jacob Svetoslav, a descendant of the Kiev princes. Ivan Asen II  made him an alderman of a district in the West Balkan Mountain.  After the death of the mighty Tsar the state got weaker and weaker. Many of the big feudal lords availed themselves of this situation to gain greater autonomy or even to have claims for the Bulgarian crown. The status of Jacob Svetoslav in the feudal system of the then Bulgarian Empire is not very clear but it is believed he supported Constantine Tich (1257-1277) against his rival for the throne and received the title of Despot.

The successor of Jacob Svetoslav at the end of the XIII century became despot Shishman. The boundaries of his realm extended from the Iron Gates on the West to Vratsa and Oryahovo on the East. Vidin was the capital of Shishman and Belogradchik remained the second most important fortress. In 1292 the Despot undertook a military campaign against Serbia, but suffered a defeat at the Zdrelo Fortress by the troops of the Serbian king Stefan Milutin. The Serbs invaded the Vidin Despotate and seized the capital. Shishman sought refuge with the Tatar Khan Nogai, who promised his support. Faced before a collision with the Tartar hordes, the Serbian King withdrew from the Vidin Despotate. Around 1313 the ruler of Vidin was Michael Shishman. Ten years later he was elected as ruler of the Bulgarian kingdom and the region was again subjected under the control of Tarnovo.

In between dynastic conflicts and struggles for control over one territory or another, the threat of the Ottoman invasion came from the South. But due to its geographic location Vidin’s Kingdom of Ivan Sratsimir, as well as Belogradchik remained unaffected by the Ottoman attacks until the end of the XIV century.

Throughout its existence, the Second Bulgarian Empire fought the processes of separation that were typical of the era. The Vidin region was one of the most problematic in this regard. Even during the reign of Tsar Boril (1207-1213) a rebellion erupted in Vidin. The King quelled it with the help of the Magyar knights.

After the death of Ivan Asen II the struggles for the throne weakened the control of Tarnovo over the districts of the kingdom, which allowed local nobles to declare themselves as independent. At the end of the 13 century the boyar (whom most of the scholars believe was Despot Shishman) ruled the Vidin region as an independent governor. The boundaries of his realm extended from the Iron Gates on the west, to Vratsa and Oryahovo on the East. Vidin was the capital of Shishman and Belogradchik was the second most important stronghold.
Around 1313 the ruler of Vidin was Michael Shishman. After he was elected as the Tsar of Bulgaria in 1323, the Vidin despotate ruled by his brother Belaur again was subjected to control of Tarnovo. After the death of Tsar Michael III Shishman in the Velbazhd battle (1330) his son Ivan Stefan ascended the Bulgarian throne. Soon he was dethroned and the nephew of Michael Shishman Ivan Alexander came to the throne. Belaur who was advancing a pro-Serbian policy opposed the new ruler and started a war between the two of them (1331), which ended with the victory of Ivan Alexander and again Vidin passed under the control of the BulgarianKingdom.

In 1355 Michael Asen  the firstborn son of Ivan Alexander died in battle against the Ottomans. So the throne was supposed to be taken by his brother Ivan Sratsimir. The Tsar, however, preferred his son born by the Jewish woman Sarah Ivan Shishman, who was crowned as a co-tsar and was prepared to inherit the reign in Tarnovo.

As compensation Ivan Sratsimir received the Vidin Despotate. According to some scholars even then it was called the Vidin Kingdom, while the rest was known as the Tarnovo Kingdom.

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[toggle title=” The Magyar occupation “]

At the beginning of 1365 the Hungarian King Lajos I the Great threatened with war the Vlach and Moldovan principalities and the lands of Ivan Sratsimir. The princes of Wallachia and Moldavia declared themselves as Hungarian vassals, but the ruler of Vidin refused.
Leading a large army Lajos I the Great invaded the Vidin region, seized some of the smaller forts and then headed to Vidin. The siege began on May 30 and ended on June 2 with the capture of Vidin. Ivan Sratsimir and his family were captured and imprisoned in Croatia, where they were forced to accept the Catholicism. The captured district was turned into a “banat”, meaning an area subject to the king of Hungary. The population was forcibly incorporated into the Western Christianity.

In 1369 Tsar Ivan Alexander entered into an alliance with the Wallachian warlord Vladislav Vlaicu and the split off despot Dobrotitsa  to free Vidin from the Hungarians. Vlaicu seized Vidin and occupied the town for six months, but the Hungarian king managed to restore it. He entered into negotiations with Ivan Alexander and agreed to return the Vidin region, if the king gave him his daughters as hostages.

At the end of the year Vidin was again in Bulgarian hands and Ivan Sratsimir was released and returned to his domain.

On February 17, 1371 Tsar Ivan Alexander died. Each of his two successors – Ivan Sratsimir and Ivan Shishman believed himself to be the sole legitimate ruler of the Bulgarian kingdom and did not recognize the rights of other. This lead to the final separation of Vidin from the rest of the Bulgarian lands and the establishment of the VidinKingdom.

Due to its location the Vidin Kingdom at first remains unaffected by the Turkish attacks. Ivan Sratsimir did not interfere in any way in the fight of Tarnovo Kingdom against the Ottoman Empire.

With the growth of the Ottoman threat, in order to avoid any aggression Sratsimir recognized himself as a Turkish vassal. He undertook to pay an annual tax and to support the Sultan with military forces whenever requested from him.

After the fall of the TarnovoKingdom and the Despotate of Dobruja  in 1395 the Vidin King was forced to accept a Turkish garrison in his capital. As at this time is the evidence of the emissary of the king of Vidin to the Turkish governor of the subjugated Tarnovo. It was headed by Bishop Ioasaph Bdinski  and the heir to the crown – Constantine. They solicited to receive the relics of St. Filotea of Tarnovo and carry them in Vidin.

In 1396 the Hungarian King Sigismund I organized a crusade against the Ottoman Turks. When his army reached Vidin, Ivan Sratsimir willingly opened the doors of the fortress for the Crusaders. He delivered the Turkish garrison right into the hands of Sigismund I and helped him in every possible way, relying on his assistance to get rid of the Ottoman rule. On September 25, in the Battle of Nikopol the Christian army was defeated by Sultan Bayezid I.

After his victory, he proceeded to Vidin to deal with his vassal who has betrayed him. Ivan Sratsimir appeared before the Sultan, to manifest their obedience, relying on his promises that he would be reprieved. Bayezid however ordered to put him in chains and take him to Bursa. The further fate of Ivan Sratsimir unknown.

According to the prevailing view, the fall of the Vidin Kingdom in the hands of the Turks in 1396 put the end of the  Second Bulgarian Empire. The heir of the crown Constantine, however, managed to escape. He, along with his first cousin, Prince Fruzhin (the son of Tsar Shishman), later (from 1408 to 1413) led the first rebellion of the Bulgarians against the Ottoman Empire.

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[toggle title=” Ottoman Period “]

After the fall of Bulgaria under the Ottoman rule Belogradchik retained its administrative functions and importance. In the first decades of the period only the soldiers of the garrison of the stronghold occupied the region. Despite the assimilation policy of the Subleme Porte after the XV century, the Christian population in the region was still dominant.

The Ottoman rule had a more serious impact on the economic and social situation of the Bulgarians. The separation was conveyed to and reflected by the urban development and in Belogradchik three independent neighbourhoods have been formed. Two of them, located next to the stronghold, were inhabited by the families of the officers of the garrison. A reminiscence of that time is the abundantly ornate mosque “Haji Hussein” built in 1771.
The third Christian neighbourhood had its own character with its neat white houses. So the Ottomans left the city with the old Bulgarian name and only put the Turkish diminutive suffix “chik” or Belogradchik – meaning the small Belgrade (white town).

The main means of living for the local people throughout the Ottoman period remained livestock breeding, agriculture and wine production. In the XVIII – XIX century goldsmith and ironmongery thrived, and pottery, sewing and homespun weaving developed

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[toggle title=” Troubled times “]

At the end of the XVII century the northwest territories became the arena of armed conflicts during the war between the Subleme Porte (the government of the Ottoman Empire) and Austria and the related Chiprovtsi uprising.

Ever since the spring of 1688 rebel units under the leadership of Georgi Peyachevich began to leave Chiprovtsi and join the Austrian army. Peyachevich’s troops took part in the capture of the Orsova Fortress and the Banat region. After the Battle of Belgrade the uprising spread all over the North-western Bulgaria. The six advancing Austrian regiments failed to coordinate the Bulgarian units that were idle and thus allowed the Ottomans to regroup. The decisive battle took place in October 1688 in the Zheravitsa locality near Kutlovitsa where the rebel forces were defeated by the Ottoman troops and their Magyar allies led by Count Emmerich Tekeli. Although the battles continued, the uprising was quickly crushed.

Chiprovtsi was captured on October 18 after a heroic defence and it was completely devastated, along with the surrounding villages KopilovtsiZhelezna and Klisura. Almost all of their population was killed or taken in slavery. In the coming months, the resistance continued and gradually the remnants of the rebel army became haidouks (outlaws). At this time Austrian divisions hang idle on the other side of the Balkan mountain and the Austrians conquered Vidin as late as the autumn of 1689. The Chiprovtsi uprising put to an end the status of north-western Bulgaria as a buffer area between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg territories. The Catholic influence also ended. The privileges of the Bulgarian nobility and their powers in the area were withdrawn. The importance of Chiprovtsi as a cultural and economic centre was seriously reduced.

Nevertheless, the haidouks’ (outlaw) groups existed throughout the entire period of the Ottoman rule. The reasons causing the riots in the first half of the XIX century was the failure to implement the Gulhan Hatisherif and Hatt-ı Hümayun – the Ottoman reform edict aimed at improving the situation of the Christian population, especially giving it land at the expense of the Spahi (Turkish cavalry, feudals) farms. Certainly further impetus gave also the liberation movements in Serbia, which led to the creation of an autonomous principality in 1817. It was these two factors that have caused a series of revolts and uprisings in north-western Bulgaria – in 1806, 1821, 1833, 1835 in Pirot and the Manchov’s Rebellion – in 1836 – 1837.

The next decade was marked by uprisings in Niš in 1841 and 1848-1849 and the Puyuv’s sedition in April 1849. Thus on the eve of the Crimean War the population of Belogradchik and its surroundings was revolutionized to a great extent.

In 1850 the Belogradchik’s population rebelled. Organizers of the uprising were the local leaders Valcho Bochev, Lilo Panov, Grandfather Bozhin, Nedyalko the Wallachian, Constantine Yanev and Petko Kazandji. The head of the rebels was Tsolo Todorov. At the beginning of the year a Committee gathered at the Rakovitsa Monastery which decided to start a rebellion on 1st of June The monastery still keeps a precious relic called the “bloody conspiracy” – a document signed by the participants with their blood.

The uprising began on the appointed date in the village of Vodnyantsi. There from Captain Krustio led his people to the town of Lom, but the rebel unit was defeated by the well-armed garrison.

The climax of the uprising was the siege of Belogradchik, which lasted ten days. It involved more than ten thousand poorly armed peasants. The rebels withstood the artillery fire, but could not engage in an attack, as they were mostly armed with blade weapons only.

After the defeat of the rebels at Lom and Belogradchik the Ottomans joined their forces and attacked. During the first battles they were repulsed. But the new offensive undertaken on June 19 ended with defeat for the Bulgarians. After the final defeat of the uprising, the Ottomans subjected the population to severe persecution, but this did not stop the armed struggle. The rebels organized fortified camps in the Balkan Mountain. Cavalry units provided protection of the roads and other villages that have not yet been ruined, thus forcing the authorities to seek contact with the local population. It was agreed to send a delegation to the Sublime Porte, where they could present their request and explain the reason for the rebellion. On August 14, 1850 the delegates were received by the Supreme Administrative Council and have been assured that their claims will be taken into consideration by the Sultan.
A year later, land was distributed to the peasantry in return for receipt of obligations, which were supposed to be repaid within 50 years. Furthermore, local self-government was ensured and even the issue of granting autonomy to north-western Bulgaria was discussed. Despite the alleviations granted by the Sultan, the region remained troubled and the outlaws’ bands were not dismissed.

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[toggle title=” The liberation “]

During the Russo-Turkish War Belogradchik was occupied by Romanian military troops, which failed to dislodge the Turkish garrison. Only after the signing of the Edirne Armistice on  February 25, 1878, the residents of Belogradchik officially accepted the Russian troops.

After the liberation Belogradchik preserved its craftsman features and its role as a district centre. During the post liberation period significant development has been carried out. In 1894 the library-community centre and the theatre were built, and in 1901 a new school was built and ten years later the town hospital. The population continued to grow and albeit with slow rates in 1946 it numbered 2,192 people.

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[toggle title=” Wars for national unification “]

The Serbo-Bulgarian War began in early November 1885, when Serbia dissatisfied with the accomplished unification of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, declared war on Bulgaria. The remarkable Bulgarian military victory, also called “Captains defeated the generals” became a precondition for international recognition of the unification.

Serbia organized its offensive actions through the Nishava’s Army (the West Front) and Timok’s Army (the North Front). Unlike the first actions where the Bulgarians quickly went on the offensive, on the North Front the Serbian army advanced towards Vidin. The balance of human power was unequal. The Serbs numbered 22,000, while the Bulgarian defenders among which there were no regular soldiers numbered 15,000.

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[toggle title=” Belogradchik during the Serbo-Bulgarian War “]   

Battles were fought until November 3 – 6, 1885. According to the plan of General Leshanin, the Serbian Army Commander of 14th Regiment headed to Belogradchik through the Kadaboaz Passage. After overcoming the resistance of the defending Bulgarian subdivisions, the enemy Emerih Tekelit came from the village of Salash and sat in position on the peak Vedernik. There from he began shelling the Belogradchik Fortress. At that time a Serbian Battalion was heading to Belogradchik advancing through the passage of St. Nicholas. The passage was defended only by 160 people volunteers. At that time Belogradchik fortress was defended only by the second reserve troop and a troop of volunteers, with a total number of about 1,600 people.

Capturing Belogradchik was of particular importance, since it enabled the enemy army to advance to Vidin. For this reason, the commander of the North Squad Captain Atanas Uzunov ordered the Commander of the Belogradchik squad – Lieutenant Stefan Cholakov to keep the city at any cost. For this purpose he received reinforcements of 400 men from the army of volunteers and the Sandrov’s volunteer’s squad, which was under the command of Lieutenant Panayot Dvoryanov. On November 5th Sandrov’s squad managed to sneak in Belogradchik and together with Cholakov they organized the defence of the town. In the coming days due to fallen fog the enemy continued to shell the fortress, but on November 6th when the weather cleared, they went on the offensive. Instead of waiting for the impact, the Belogradchik’s squad also went on the offensive, attacking from the rear. The Serbs thought they were surrounded, suspended their offensive and withdrew approximately two kilometres west of the town. The retreat of the 14th Serbian Regiment did not allow the Serbian battalion advancing through the passage St. Nicholas to attack. It also withdrew to the border via the village of Chuprene.

During the battles the Serbian forces had 46 victims, about 50 were wounded and 90 captured. The horse and the sword of the commander of the regiment were taken as trophies. The Bulgarian divisions had only 1 soldier killed and 4 wounded.

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[toggle title=” The 15th Infantry Regiment of Lom “] 

Belogradchik still lives with the remarkable heroisms of one of the most glorious infantry regiments in our recent history – the 15th Lom’s Regiment, which lodged in the city. The regiment was formed in Vidin in 1889 by the 2nd and 3rd battalions of the 3rd Infantry Bdin’s Regiment.

Under their flowing flag, the 15th Infantry Lom’s Regiment participated also in the Balkan War (1912 1913), in the battles at Lyuleburgaz, TurkBay, Tatar-kjoy, Umurcha, under the attack of the Chataldzha position, at the heights near the village of Ezedin, the villages Yialos and Kuli-Burgaz.

In the Second Balkan War (1913) the regiment participated in the fights at the villages of Dolna Mahala and Hissar, in the area west from the Vardar River, the Lake Duserdus, east of the Doiran Lake, in the battles at the villages of Budinartsi and Umlyano, at Mount Bajaz-Tepe, Mount Rouen, the village of Pancharevo and at the Kuzlu Dere River.

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[toggle title=” World War I “]

In 1915, at the beginning of World War I, the 15th Infantry Regiment of Lom was involved in the fights at the Staykovo Bardo (Staykovo’s hill), at the Planinitsa heights, Bukovo, and Varbovets. In 1916 the Regiment fought at the village Lazhets and mount Ostrets and in 1917 – in the battles at the Red Wall, where the regiment commander Colonel Stefan Iliev was killed. His place was occupied by Colonel Vasil Shishkov.

After the armistice of Thessalonica, signed on September 29, 1918, the regiment remained in captivity under the terms of surrender. Colonel Shishkov began organizing a rescue of the flag. On the night of 3 to 4 October 1918 along with Colonel Hristo Mladenov, they hid the regiment flag in a box of ammo and buried it. In order to deceive the French, they ostentatiously set the empty case of the flag on fire. After being searched, the officers and soldiers of Belogradchik were taken to prison camps under a French guard. At that time Colonel Shishkov took back the flag of the regiment. After a long time of hiding under shirts of the men on February 6, 1919 the flag was handed over to Colonel Joseph Petrov. He, acting as a liaison with the French headquarters in Thessalonica, forwarded it to Colonel Valkov, the Chief of Staff of the 10th Division in the town of Komotini, who in his turn forwarded it to the Ministry of War. The flag was awarded the Commemorative Medals for the Wars of 1912-1913, and 1915-1918 and in 1923 was awarded a “commemorative metal bracelet” for being saved and its rescuers were awarded with a “Sign of saving the flag”.

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[toggle title=” World War II “]

In 1941-1942, and in 1944 the regiment was garrisoned in Bitola, Krusevac and Bjala Palanka. It participated in the first phase of the final stages of World War II in Europe as part of the 6th Infantry Bdin’s Division and fought in Strazhevats, Bjala Voda, and Kurshumlii. In early October 1944 the regiment was given the task to advance in the region of Slivovik, Koritnitsi. On October 14, the regiment participated in the liberation of Niš, participated in the Kosovo operation and the conquest of the Poduevsko field, it advanced via the Kopaonik Mountain. On November 25, the 15th Lom’s Regiment reached the Madjari – Maidan line, where it gave 103 victims and ended its course of battles.

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[toggle title=” Sources – Additional Literature “]

Sources: Based on the book of Constantine Sabchev “The secrets of Belogradchik”, S. 2011

Additional Literature:

N. Sirakov, J-L. Guadelli. Excavations in the Kozarnika Cave, Early-Late Palaeolithic era, from Archaeological discoveries and excavations in 2005, XLV National Archaeological Conference, Archaeological Institute and Museum with the Bulgarian Academy of Science, 2006.

„History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages. Volume III. Second Bulgarian Empire. Bulgaria during the reign of Assens (1187—1280)“ – Vasil N. Zlatarski, Publisher “Nauka and Izkustvo “, Sofia 1972

“History of Bulgaria. Volume III. Second Bulgarian Empire”, Published by the BulgarianAcademy of Science, 1982.

“The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars VII-XIV c. AD”, Yordan Andreev, State publishing house “Dr. Petar Beron”, 1988.

“From Gallipoli to Lepanto. The Balkans, Europe and the Ottoman invasion 1354-1571”, Hristo Matanov and Rumyana Mihneva, published by “Titia”, Sofia, 1998.

“The biography of the Serbian Kings and Archbishops”, Danillo (Archbishop, Serbian writer of 14 century).

“Praising words for Filotea Temnishka”, Joasaf Bdinski (Bishop of Vidin, Bulgarian writer, the end of. 14 century – beginning of 15 century).

“Anonymous Bulgarian Chronicles”, author unknown of 15 century. Bulgarian Battle Flags: www.boiniznamena.com

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